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solid waste collection, transfer and transport

Date: October 1, 2020 Author: Categories: Uncategorized


These activities can be done in either an interactive or hierarchical way. The electricity, however, is considered. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Canada is one of the largest per capita emitters of greenhouse gas, generating 720 megatonnes (Mt) carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e), or per capita emissions of 23.2 t CO2e. This might explain the span of the calculations provided.

Rick LeBlanc wrote about sustainability and supply chain topics for The Balance Small Business. To this purpose, the main elements necessary for the collection process (carrier bags, dustbins, street containers and vehicles) were analysed applying the life cycle assessment methodology, making use of locally gathered data.

Emissions from this sector contribute around 3% of total net emissions in Australia. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases.

In the examples shown h, consumption and the derived emissions of GHG is, chain of heavy freight coaches and are used for transp, between transfer stations or waste treatment facilities.

Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided. For the demand factor of infrastructure operation, a sensitivity analysis of the employed allocation factor was performed, revealing no sensitivity for gaseous emissions and particles. The GWF for transport of waste by trains based on, contribution to GHG emissions is based on. Removing coffee cups from the landfill waste stream could reduce the associated landfill GHG emissions by around 0.275 tCO2e/y for the 10 public facilities. /Type /Page accordance with the examples shown in this paper.

<< 3 0 obj In order to link the various transport components to the functional unit of one tonne kilometre (tkm), so-called demand factors are determined. Each district’s greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the provision and combustion of diesel fuel was estimated by considering the number of collection trips and distances to municipal solid waste facilities. /F1 13 0 R For gaseous emissions, freight transport by water or rail exhibits considerably better performance than road transport (65-92% less gaseous emissions). These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and, Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. The purpose of this work is to assess the environmental impacts of the collection of mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) in a selected neighbourhood of the Portuguese city of Aveiro. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. Whilst fine particle emissions due to water and rail transport are considerably lower than road transport, rail transport with respect to coarse particles performs worse than road transport. kWh( -1)). Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. Categorization may also be based on hazard potential, including radioactive, flammable, infectious, toxic, or non-toxic. This situation was analysed using selected product and waste streams.

4 0 obj [17 0 R 18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R] This evaluation determined that, among the options examined, waste incineration, further source separation of recyclables, and anaerobic digestion of an organic wastes have the greatest benefits for reducing GHG emissions in the City of Ottawa's waste sector.

Implications: Potential opportunities for general waste reduction and GHG emission mitigation in public facilities has been studied in this paper.

efficient transport modes, including trains, barges and ships, should be considered if the transport distances are long and, EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial P, Draft Reference Document on Best Available T, ment Resource Management (ERM) for Department for Environ-, randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=WR0609_5737_, in waste management and implications for accounting of green-. The diesel consumption per tonne of waste in the specified collection schemes turned out to be related to the type of housing and to the amount of waste collected per stop. The respective allocation parameters employed for line infrastructure construction/disposal and operation datasets (including land use) are yearly Gross-tonne kilometre performance (Gtkm) and kilometric vehicle/train performance. Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004-3 kg CO(2)-eq. /Rotate 0 The transfer activities normally take place at tran, tions and involve reloading, compaction or even segregation, of the waste. >> This research study aimed to identify new opportunities for reducing GHG emissions from the landfill waste stream in public facilities in Blacktown City in New South Wales, Australia. More than 99% of the emissions are due to CO, emissions factors applied in calculations in, ious energy uses.

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Example 6 shows that transport of waste by. Countries with a limited road system depe, railways or barges, and non-coastal countries, oped road systems that promote transport by vehi, the variation of the density and the compact, are more compactable than metals and rubble which have a. higher density (M.Ø.

This mechanistic model can then be used to predict future fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with municipal solid waste collection based on projected population, waste generation, and distance to transfer stations and landfills. Particularly, food production datasets should be chosen and used carefully, to avoid double counting and overestimation of the final impacts. /MC1 11 0 R /F2 12 0 R In terms of climate change, the comparison allows us to conclude that pneumatic systems have a carbon footprint 119% higher than the lowest impact scenario (side-loading containers located in drop-off-points).
Results show that the environmental impact of pneumatic systems and underground containerization is higher than that of conventional systems. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective.

Annual low-carbon benefit of the system is estimated to be 11.894 t. The cumulative net present value (NPV) of the system in the life cycle time (20 years) is $52,207.247, with the consideration of a discount rate of 8%; also, the cash flow breakeven occurs in the 11th year.

/Cs9 8 0 R In the case of. from provision and use of fuel for transfer of 1 tonne of waste. Conclusions and Perspectives. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageC] kWh( -1)). Example 1. Principles to Improve Solid Waste Collection and Transport Effective For solid waste collection and transport to be effective, the LA must get the job done. (2001), Management Options and Climate Change – Final report to the Euro-, pean Commission, DG Environment, Luxembourg. Assessment of the potential environmental impact by a life-cycle-assessment method showed a substantial decrease over the last decade because of implementation of European emissions standard for diesel trucks.

Dominance analysis reveals the importance of infrastructure processes. >> kWh( -1)). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from landfills contribute to global climate change. Facanha & Horvath (2007) indicated that the type of vehicle, aerodynamics together with geography and even air quality, indicated that good driving practice also influences the emis-, and use of fuel is included. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Rasmus Eisted, All content in this area was uploaded by Rasmus Eisted on Nov 18, 2015.

This system can be mounted on top of an existing residential building to provide electricity from renewable sources. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007-1.13 kg CO(2)-eq. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare diesel fuel consumption and estimate the greenhouse gas emissions and global warming factors associated with municipal solid waste collection of the 39, Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. tems is increased by larger payload and newer equipment. production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles.

Recycling of metals: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions. /Font

Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. GHG emissions created in, manufacture and maintenance of collection, Citizens, whether living in single-family houses or apart-, ment buildings, typically carry their own wastes to bins, tion for trucks collecting residual waste and paper waste in, of waste and was highest for collection in areas w, population density, for example, where residential units, relatively widely spaced. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Waste collection coverage in North America is nearly universal, at 99.7%. The system boundaries were set in terms of the generation of waste to recycling or landfilling. The main impacts associated with this activity are mostly related to the use of polyethylene plastic bags to carry the waste from the household to the waste container, and to the fuel consumption of collection vehicle that picks MSW from street containers and transports it to the treatment facility. By assigning a, global warming potential (GWP) to the emissions, the poten-.

/ColorSpace Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. /Length 3980 As far as zinc and cadmium emissions to soil are concerned, water and rail transport produce less than 1% of the emissions resulting from road transport for either pollutant.

The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries.

Food preparation, for households and food service sectors, also provided an important contribution to the Global Warming impacts, while waste management partly mitigated the overall impacts by incurring significant savings when landfilling was replaced with anaerobic digestion and incineration. Recycling of glass: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions. Delivery of bulky waste, gar-, den waste and recyclables are widespread, but household, waste is also collected in this way. The results presented comprise both an intra- and inter-modal comparison.Results and Discussions A comparison of Swiss and European rail transport reveals considerably lower emissions from Swiss rail transport due to the almost exclusive use of hydropower as traction energy.

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